The Advanced Biomanufacturing and Biosensing (AdBio) Lab is inspired by the sentiment 'If you can't measure it, you can't manage it.'
Specifically, our lab is focused on the creation of robust sensing platforms that enable simultaneous real-time measurement of physio-mechanical property changes and quantification of chemical and biological species (i.e., physical property sensing and biosensing, respectively) in complex matrices (aerosols, liquids, and gels) as they represent inputs, outputs, and quality signatures of various processes and systems.
Applications include: high throughput (bio)material characterization and bioassay, in situ monitoring and closed-loop control of bio-manufacturing and agricultural processes (e.g., tissue scaffold and mini-tissue bioprinting, cell expansion, gene expression, fermentation), food safety, and environmental monitoring (e.g., for water safety, agriculture, bio-defense).
Emphasis is on creation of integrated heterogeneous label-free sensors for robust in situ monitoring of processes that are subject to high probabilities of sensor and process disturbances via heterogeneous sensing platforms. For example, our research is focused on measurement in dense practical complex matrices that contain copious background species and process disturbances, such as cell suspensions, tissues, food matrices, and soils.
Our research is guided by major questions including: 1) How can sensors be leveraged for biosensing in gel and solid matrices, such as continuous monitoring of physiological signatures of tissues, organs, and soil systems?; 2) How can sensor surfaces be regenerated using chemical-free approaches?; 3) How can sensor biorecognition approaches and transduction mechanisms be adapted to sensitively detect the binding of large targets, such as whole cells?; How can materials be continuously extruded over non-flat surfaces (i.e., objects with complex organic shape) with high quality?; and What is the relationship between chemotactic signal parameters and biological response?
Focus is on design and engineering of highly sensitive, selective, rapid, and robust biosensors and associated measurement formats for long-term sensing applications based on reference sensing, in situ verification (e.g., secondary binding and target release), in situ surface regeneration, sample preparation-free measurement, and sensor-based data analytics. Interest varies across a wide range of transduction mechanisms, but focus is given to sensors composed of combinations of gravimetric and electrochemical approaches due to the potential for novel readout and sensing capabilities (e.g., dual-readout as well as anti-fouling and surface regeneration, respectively). Thus, we are currently interested in a novel sensing platform based on hybrid electrochemical-cantilever biosensors, referred to as electrochemical piezoelectric-excited millimeter-sized cantilever (ePEMC) sensors, as they enable novel real-time sensing opportunities in dense matrices due to high cantilever Reynolds number.
Our lab specializes in the use of hybrid microextrusion 3D printing and robotic-embedding additive manufacturing processes for design and fabrication of sensors, bioelectronics, biomedical devices, and microphysiological plant and animal systems, with unique capability in structured light scanning, conformal printing, tool path programming, multi-material printing, bio-fabrication, bioelectronics, and 3D printed electronics. We also heavily utilize techniques of electrical impedance spectroscopy, finite element simulation, electrochemical analysis, bioassay (e.g., PCR and ELISA), and cell culture for characterization and testing.
Research problems span from the macro- to nanoscale, ranging from: conformal printing over objects with complex geometric shape, to continuous flow measurement formats, to transduction physics/mechanisms of sensor-target binding events, to bioconjugation and biorecognition chemistry. Thus, we are fundamentally interested in additive manufacturing, sensor fabrication, transport phenomena, bioreactor design, bioprocess engineering, process controls, acoustofluidics, impedance analysis, surface and interfacial chemistry, bioconjugation, and thus, multi-scale interface between materials and biology.
Current projects are driven by needs in: additive manufacturing, organ transplantation, innervation of 3D printed tissues/organs, biomanufacturing of quality tissues and cell therapies, high throughput material classification, water resource management, and agriculture. Project are also highly driven by use of sensor-based and additive manufacturing approaches to better understand plant and animal physiology (e.g., chemotaxis) at both a cellular and systems level.